Monday, May 25, 2020

Essay about Roanoke Colony - 1106 Words

The Lost Colony Jamestown is thought by most of to be the first colony in the New World but this is not the complete truth. Jamestown is considered our first successful colony; however it was not the first attempt at a colony. There were a few attempts to colonize the New World before Jamestown and one in particular that was the most mysterious is the Roanoke colony, also known as the Lost Colony. The colony got this name because the colonists that were there vanished mysteriously with no trace of what happened. Sir Humphrey Gilbert and his half-brother Sir Walter Raleigh were both veterans of earlier colony efforts. In 1578 Gilbert managed to acquire a patent from Queen Elizabeth that would let him have exclusive rights for six years†¦show more content†¦Reluctant to give up, he turned to private investors to finance another expedition. In 1585 his cousin, Sir Richard Grenville, was picked up to be the leader of a group to establish a colony on Roanoke. With him were 100 soldiers, craftsmen, and scholars to try and settle the colony. Under direction of Ralph Lane, the colony was doomed from the beginning. The settlers had arrived late in the season which made it almost impossible to plant crops and supplies were depleting and to make things worse, Lane, a captain alienated the surrounding tribes and killed their chief over a stolen cup. After Ralph Lane and his men had had enough, they left the settlement and their fort not knowing that only a week later a supply ship from England had arrived. Finding the island deserted, the leader left fifteen men behind to hold the fort and went back to England for reinforcements. In England, on January 7, 1587, a document allowing a government body to be created was signed and passed. This body was named the Governor and Assistants of the City of Roanoke in Virginia. Jon White, a skilled illustrator and map maker, was appointed Governor. On May 5, 1587 Raleigh decided to try again and boarded 117 men, seventeen women, and nine children for a more permanent settlement and sent them to the New World. The original plan was to settle at Chesapeake Bay, but on July 22, 1587 the captain, Simao Fernandes, decided toShow MoreRelatedThe Roanoke Colony On Roanoke Island911 Words   |  4 PagesThe Roanoke Colony on Roanoke Island was an attempt by Queen Elizabeth I in the late 16th-century to make a permanent English settlement in the New World. In March 1584, Queen Elizabeth granted Sir Walter Raleigh a charter for the colonization of the area of North America. This charter said that Raleigh needed to create a colony in North America, or lose his right to colonization. In April 1584, Raleigh dispatched an expedition led by Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe to explore the Eastern coastRead MoreEssay on The Lost Roanoke Colony741 Words   |  3 Pagesthought by most of our general population to be the first colony in the New World. This is only half true. Jamestown is considered our first successful colony, however it was not our first attempt at a colony. There were a few attempts to c olonize the New World before Jamestown and one in particular that is found to be interesting is Roanoke also known as the Lost Colony. It received this name due to the fact that the colonists that settled this colony disappeared very mysteriously. This poses the questionRead MoreThe Last Colony Of Roanoke1639 Words   |  7 PagesThe Last Colony of Roanoke Five hundred years ago, European explorers landed in North America. After trying to locate a new route to Asia across the Atlantic Ocean, they found a continent they did not know existed. Three different groups traveled to the New World, starting in 1584 (Basu, Tanya). The last group included Gov. John White, he had to return to England to submit his report to the Queen. John White tried several times to return to Virginia, but it wasn’t until a few years later he was finallyRead MoreRoanoke Island: the Lost Colony1691 Words   |  7 PagesRoanoke Island: The Lost Colony Alycia Roberts HIST113 VC On July 22, 1587, long before the Pilgrims arrived at Plymouth Rock, 117 hopeful colonists from England landed ashore onto a tiny island along the coast of what is today North Carolina. The group unpacked and founded a settlement, Roanoke Island. Then they vanished without a trace. The story of the Lost Colony has fascinated people across four centuries and remains one of the enduring mysteries of early America. There are several theoriesRead MoreThe Disappearance Of The Roanoke Island Colony1214 Words   |  5 PagesAmerica’s past is a mysterious one, riddled with unsolved questions and misleading legends. One of the most prominent enigmas that has haunted historians for centuries is the disappearance of the Roanoke Island Colony, also known to many as The Lost Colony. After leaving for three years, the governor of Roanoke Island, John White, returned to find the settlement abandon. The only remaining clue was the word â€Å"CROATOAN† carved into a fence post and the letters â€Å"CRO† etched into a nearby tree. Several diverseRead MoreEssay Lost Colony of Roanoke967 Words   |  4 Pagescenturies, the Lost Colony of Roanoke Island has been a controversial issue. Many theories exist that explain the disappearance of the colony. Some theories suggest that the colonists left the island to live with friendly neighboring Indians. Others suggest that a hurricane wiped out the colony or that a savage Indian tribe massacred them. The possibility of disease destroying them is also a debated topic. However, evidence indicates that the men and women left behind on Roanoke Island did not dieRead MoreFinding The Lost Colony Of Roanoke Essay2058 Words   |  9 PagesEnglish put forth their effort to establish in America, specifically on Roanoke island. In 1584, English colonies found east coast of North America but not permanently settled. Until 1587. Raleigh, John White and a group of 115 English settlers arrived at Roanoke Island. Although this great achievement had inflated nation s economy and promote country’s prosperity, its reign didn’t last long. John White came back to Roanoke after 3 years of disappearance. After his arrival, John had no clue whereRead MoreEssay about The Roanoke Colony3826 Words   |  16 PagesThe Roanoke colony was located on the Roanoke Island, in Dare County. This is where North Carolina is located today. In 1584, explorers Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe were the first Europeans to set view the island. They were sent to that particular region by Sir Walter Raleigh with the assignment of exploring the extensive sounds and estuaries in hunt of an ideal location for settlement. Barlowe wrote bright information of Roanoke Island, and when the explorers returned to England a yea r afterwardRead MoreThe Mystery Of The Lost Colony Of Roanoke2021 Words   |  9 PagesThe mystery of the Lost Colony of Roanoke is a puzzling mystery about what happened to the first English settlers in America. The question is, what actually happened to them, because even with evidence and research no one knows for absolute certain what actually did happen. The disappearance of an entire colony, who left behind a dismantled settlement and the word Croatoan etched into a tree has stumped many archaeologists. Countless theories have arisen, some more outrageous than the restRead More The Mystery of the Lost Colony of Roanoke Essay2868 Words   |  12 PagesMystery of the Lost Colony of Roanoke It was the age of discovery that first provoked intrigue and curiosity of new lands, particularly the Americas, and how the Europeans could expand to fit their society within the borders of this unknown and unexplored land. By the 1580s, more had been learned about the Americas, but any colonization until this point had not even been attempted. And so it was the English, under Queen Elizabeth Is rule, that were issued to establish a colony along the east coast

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Ontological Argument Is Not Reliant On An Posteriori

Ontological Argument Saint Anselm created the â€Å"Ontological Argument†. Saint Anselm was the archbishop of Canterbury. The premise of Saint Anselm’s Ontological Argument is that, no greater being can be conceived than God. The Ontological Argument is an a priori or deductive argument. An a priori argument does not have to be supported by real or factual evidence just by reason without observation. Thus, the Ontological Argument is not reliant on an a posteriori premise. An a posteriori argument is an inductive argument and usually considered to be true because of past evidence or reasoning and rarely false. In â€Å"Core Questions in Philosophy† by Elliot Sober, Sober first discusses how Saint Anselm’s Ontological Argument agues the†¦show more content†¦However, nothing can be imagined greater or more perfect than God. So therefore Anselm believes, God must exist in every possible world. However, Gaunilo and Kant criticize Anselm’s Ontol ogical Argument. First, Guanilo believes that Saint Anselm’s Ontological Argument is faulty. Regardless that the Ontological Argument is deductively valid, Gaunilo believed there must be something inaccurate with the argument. Gaunilo used a concept of a perfect island, which he shortens to P-island. Gaunilo’s counter-argument is actually in the same format of Anselm’s Ontological Argument, which is an a priori argument. The theory of a P-island is that no greater island can be thought of. This theory begins the same way as Anselm starts out the Ontological Argument. By paralleling to the Ontological Argument, that no greater being can be thought of greater than God; Gaunelos premise is that, no greater island to be though of than P-island. So furthermore, P-island is the best possible island. His first premise was, P-island is the greatest possible imaginable island. Second was that, if the island doesn t exist in the real world, it is not as perfect as an isl and that exists in all possible worlds. Then, his result was that a P-island is not contingent but exists necessarily. Furthermore, Gaunelo next concluded that the two premises of the P-island counter-argument are true; but that it doesn t deductively imply the conclusion. He then states that this mustShow MoreRelatedDoes The Ontological Argument Successfully Show That God Exists? Essay1859 Words   |  8 PagesNumber - SYBSAM001 Course code - PHI1024F Course Lecturer – Dean Chapman Tutor – Kajal Carr Does the Ontological Argument successfully show that God exists? God – â€Å"a being of which nothing greater can be conceived.† (Blackburn, S, 1999. Think. New York United States of America, Oxford University Press Inc. 5:154) The ontological argument put forward by St Anselm, is based on this definition. The argument, Anselm’s premises, the concept of god being understood, god existing in the understanding and godRead MoreEssay about Desire in Herman Melville’s Moby-Dick2921 Words   |  12 Pagesthe impenetrable wall, as well as the foundation, of being—and nothingness. As Rene Girard observes, â€Å"Every hero of a novel expects his being to be radically changed by the act of possession.† 4 More broadly, as Girard implies throughout his argument, the literary project typically entails the achievement or failure of desire, made manifest by the fixed protocols of comedy and tragedy, respectively—with multiple variations on the classic literary modes in synchronic practice. Ishmael as desiring

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Immigrant Advantage By Claudia Kolker - 849 Words

I have read a lot of books on the subject of culture and customs of the country. When I read the book â€Å"The Immigrant Advantage† of Claudia Kolker, I understand more about the immigrants’ culture and their lifestyle. Through the book, I found interesting things about all the ideas of immigrants like me. I read each chapter of the book, and in the book I realized there are three very good ideas of marriage, several generations living in the same household, and good neighbors. The marriage is one of the best things to make a happy life. Many years ago, parents had arranged marriages for their children. In Asia, as the customs of Vietnam, parents who decide and arrange the marriages of their children. Normally, parents flanked by close friends so they wanted their children to marry parent friend’s children, and gratitude between them will be even stronger together. Additionally, parents arranged for their children to marry the wealthy children to give their children full life. Also, parents choose their child partners and it is their customs. These children have no right to disobey and reject marriage. Their children married without ever knowing each other or see each other s face. According to the book â€Å"The Immigrant Advantage,† it has a story of the Indian girl married under the marriage arranged by her parents. Until now, the Indian customs that still exist. Not only in India, in other countries, there is still customary marriages arra nged by parents. Vietnam is no longerShow MoreRelatedThe Immigrant Advantage By Claudia Kolker878 Words   |  4 PagesIn Claudia Kolker’s book The Immigrant Advantage, she talks about the cultural tradition of arranged marriages brought by South Asian immigrants to the United States. Kolker agrues that arranged marriages are much more effective in finding a spouse than traditional marriages. Kolker believes that this tradition of assistive marriage should be adopted by Americans. Research and studies have shown that â€Å"women in arranged marriages rated the highest marital status† (Kolker, 71) compared to couples whoRead MoreThe Immigrant Advantage By Claudia Kolker928 Words   |  4 PagesShajuana Williams Professor: Blake Ellis Book Review 2: The Immigrant Advantage There are many questions arises when it comes to the way different cultures manage everyday life. In the book, The Immigrant Advantage by Claudia Kolker, gives us some explanations on their survival techniques. This book can help some Americans like me; live a healthy, happy and hopeful lifestyle. The Author suggests that some of us Americans can learn a few tips on immigration living. To support her informationRead MoreThe Immigrant Advantage : What We Can Learn From Immigrants1424 Words   |  6 Pagesâ€Å"The Immigrant Advantage: What We Can Learn from Newcomers to America about Health, Happiness, and Hope† Book Review Interested by the success of several immigrant friends, journalist Claudia Kolker observed various customs of the immigrants and their families, which they brought along with them to the United States. She put together her observations in her book â€Å"The Immigrant Advantage: What We Can Learn from Newcomers to America about Health, Happiness, and Hope,† which gives a detailed accountRead MoreThe Immigrant Advantage : What Rest Of America Can Learn From The Fresh Immigrants1644 Words   |  7 PagesThe Immigrant Advantage: What Rest of America can learn from the fresh Immigrants. Cultures for Longer and Happier lives Inspired by her culturally diverse life in Houston, award winning journalist and author Claudia Kolker investigates the attitudes and traditions towards education, hard work and health that have been imported into the United States by immigrants from different nations. She addresses the fact that natives to the United States have so much to learn from foreigners and that theyRead MorePersuasive Essay : Assisted Marriage2451 Words   |  10 Pagesmethod which would work very well, because it involves the same metrics based efficiency as a dating service with the personal warmth and consideration of a person’s own parents. In her book, The Immigrant Advantage: What We Can Learn from Newcomers to America about Health, Happiness, and Hope, Claudia Kolker explains how the practice has evolved from an impersonal and cold practicality to a much more modern day sensibility, using one of the most western of values, metrics. The new hybrid form of arranged

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Environmental Ethics Inventory Essay Example For Students

Environmental Ethics Inventory Essay Environmental Ethics Inventory Essay It is a strong belief of mine that the responsibility of protecting the environment is much greater on todays generation than is was for past generations. The reason that I feel the way that I do is because at this point a substantial amount of damage has already been done and in order to prevent any further environmental destruction intervention on our part is necessary. After all, we (humans) are the main cause of the problems; shouldnt we also be a part of the cure. If we had always taken the environment into consideration prior to our actions we would not be faced with some of the environmental issues we are facing today. The problem started with the past generations but the solution now has to start with us. We have to be overly conscious of our actions and what affect they will have on future generations. Since we enjoy the rights to breathe fresh air, play in the sun, live among a vast variety of plant and wildlife, then shouldnt our children, grandchildren, great grandchildren and their grandchildren, also have the chance to enjoy those same rights? My answer to that question is yes they do! We owe that to them so we all have to take a stand for our values, morals, ethics and actions regarding the preservation of a healthy and rich natural environment. The responsibilities for past generation regarding the environment was no less than ours today however, the differences are that we are now stuck with the job of correcting the mistakes of past generations, then the population was much smaller than it is today and will be in the future and more people equals potentially more pollution. I can compare this situation to one of a student who starts a class with all As and all he needs is to get a passing grade on the final and he will end up with a least a B for the class, verses a student who starts off the class with low Bs and Cs on his tests who will need to get a high B low A to just pass the class with a C. We are the B, C, student who needs an A just to pass the class with a C. It would be easier for us and less of an emergency if only our past generations would have taken us into the same consideration that we are now trying to for our future generations. It is my assumption that It will be easier for the future generations to maintain a healthy natural environment than to have to repair a damaged one. Population growth is also an important factor in the future quality of life. But it seems to me that the population is not growing at as high of a rate as it has the potential to grow. This is due to the rise of contraceptive use in third world countries. In more economically stable countries couples are waiting until later age to start families and are choosing to have fewer children than their parents. But on the other hand the population is getting older with the advances in modern medicine and the availability of vaccinations and medical treatments. I believe that due to our (people) past carelessness regarding the environment and our ongoing search for convenience in the present we are hurting our selves in the long run. Reports show that today skin cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death. We have to go to somewhat extreme measures on a daily biases to protect ours skin from the suns harmful ultra violet rays which was not the case for past generations. Sun block did not even exist decades ago and now we cant imagine life with out it. What needs to be done is we need to take measures to make changes in our actions to prevent worse conditions for future generations. It was the actions of past generations that lead to the current damage of the ozone layer that is causing the serious skin conditions of the present generation. .uc41a87308b55f484d9506fcb0f0ce83f , .uc41a87308b55f484d9506fcb0f0ce83f .postImageUrl , .uc41a87308b55f484d9506fcb0f0ce83f .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .uc41a87308b55f484d9506fcb0f0ce83f , .uc41a87308b55f484d9506fcb0f0ce83f:hover , .uc41a87308b55f484d9506fcb0f0ce83f:visited , .uc41a87308b55f484d9506fcb0f0ce83f:active { border:0!important; } .uc41a87308b55f484d9506fcb0f0ce83f .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .uc41a87308b55f484d9506fcb0f0ce83f { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .uc41a87308b55f484d9506fcb0f0ce83f:active , .uc41a87308b55f484d9506fcb0f0ce83f:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .uc41a87308b55f484d9506fcb0f0ce83f .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .uc41a87308b55f484d9506fcb0f0ce83f .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .uc41a87308b55f484d9506fcb0f0ce83f .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .uc41a87308b55f484d9506fcb0f0ce83f .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .uc41a87308b55f484d9506fcb0f0ce83f:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .uc41a87308b55f484d9506fcb0f0ce83f .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .uc41a87308b55f484d9506fcb0f0ce83f .uc41a87308b55f484d9506fcb0f0ce83f-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .uc41a87308b55f484d9506fcb0f0ce83f:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Italy Argumentative Essay It will only get worse if we do not take measures to protect what is .

Saturday, April 11, 2020

Health Profession Speaker number #3 Essay Essays -

Speaker name: Brian Reys Date: 02/21/2019 Speaker number #3 Profession: Genetic Counseling Guest speaker, Brian Reys , introduced the profession of Genetic Counseling. To begin his presentation, Reys explains to us step by step how to become a genetic counselor as well as all the recommendations and requirements needed to enter this field. Students must first finish a four-year undergr aduate program and obtain a Bachelor's degree in biology-based majors such as biology, biochemistry, genetic, and psychology, etc. Following are two to three years of graduate program where students can acquire their master's degree in genetic counseling. As a graduate student, schoolwork is more likely to focus on a composition of general genetics and c linical genetics, as well as psychology and psychosocial skills . Additionally, basic scientific and genetic principles are also needed to build an overall foundation for a career in this fi eld of profession. After completing all the coursework and training in the program, students are required to take and pass a board exam in order to obtain the ABGC and/or CAGC certification. Ma jority of the schools would want students to have counseling or crisis intervention experience as well as shadowing a genetic counselor. If shadowing is too difficult, interviewing genetic counselors, either through phone or in person, about their profession in an excellent method to strengthen your experience in this field. In addition , public work or helping people with disabilities, leadership experience, tutoring , volunteering, research , working in the healthcare area, holding employment, or just being involved and active with activities you are passionate about can b e beneficial experiences to have. One thing to consider before entering this field is that p art-time master's degrees or other flexible attendance options are uncommon. If this is something you are interested in, ask individual progra ms about their flexibility or willingness to do a part time program. Genetic counselor is a healthcare professional with specialized training in evaluating and interpreting risks of an inherited medical condition. Genetic counselors work in doctor's offices, hospitals, genetic testing labs, public health, research studies, and insurance companies, etc. They assist people in many different areas such as pediatrics, prenatal, general, cancer, and a variety of specialty areas including neurology, cardiology, and metabolism. Genetic counselors also have a lot of phone conversations with patients to notify them of test results as well as to observe how they are doing to follow up with them. They also work closely with laboratories to figure out what tests the labs offer and the required type of sample. Genetic counseling and testing can cost a lot of money, therefore, they spend a lot of time on the phone, on behalf of their patients, with insurance companies to recommend for insurance coverage. Detail oriented is one of the must-have skills because geneti c counselors have to know which tests are appropriate for patients based on their personal and family histories. Therefore, ordering the right test for the right patient is super vital. Decision making is also very crucial in this profession because genetic counselors help patients decide how to navigate and keep track of their medical care. These subjects can lead to emotional outcomes and it depends on the counselor to make a decision on how much information will be shared with the patient. In addition to that, genetic counselors will be the people who provide emotional support to individuals and families. It is a medical profession that requires substantial training in both the scientific and psychosocial factor of healthcare. There are very few career advancements available for genetic counseling including professor, public academic journalist, legislature and community groups' speaker, etc. Although there are not a lot of career opportunities available, genetic counselors can still be specialized in these three specific core specialties: prenatal, pediatrics, and cancer. Majority of the programs provide the opportunity to combine or take part in specialty clinics outside of or within those three sub-categories: cardiology, neurology or pediatrics specialty clinics. So why would one consider going into this field of profession? A lot of people, including me, are interest in genetics, but want something greater and more personal than just laboratory duty. Others wish to be part of the medical field but think medical

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

the fear of food Essay

the fear of food Essay the fear of food Essay Dear governor, As a concerned citizen of your town, it has come to my attention that the Governor of NJ wants to impose calorie intake restrictions on fast food restaurants and that this will result in many popular items being removed from the menu. I completely agree with this idea for the following reasons: Junk food is a major cause of childhood obesity, eating junk food as a primary method of nourishment will lead to diseases and illness, and Junk food is a major cause of childhood obesity. 32% of youth are overweight and nearly 70% are unfit. The fast food offered contributes to this problem. A single can of soda has as much as 13 teaspoons of sugar in the form of high- fructose corn syrup. Many of these sodas are available at fast food restaurants at low prices as well as many other completely unhealthy foods like chips. Lunches have a very high fat content and fast food restaurants supplies residents with the same commodity foods as prisons. Due to the lack of fresh and flavorful food, many people will choose to buy cheap junk food offered instead. If we could cut down on these junk foods, then we may be able to solve this problem. Secondly, eating junk food as a primary method of nourishment will lead to diseases and illness because your body is being deprived from its needed nutrias. Obesity, diabetic, Hypertension, cancer and other chronic diseases are highly related to fast food. It has more calories on average mea l than healthy food do, leading to greater

Saturday, February 22, 2020

The impact og globalisation on communication and impediments towards Essay

The impact og globalisation on communication and impediments towards free growth - Essay Example The impact of the globalization in the previous 150 years has been such wide and massive that often it seems that the global politics and relations are all set bound by the chains of communication that not a single country can take any action without affecting the global communication mechanism. the rise of technology, interdependence of states on each other, growing cultural exchange, availability of information at a press of a button and growth of international and regional organization like UNO, OPEC, SEATO, NATO and EU have over the time changed the way communication has been taken in the long past. The communication and globalization go parallel as both have a directly proportional effect on each other (Ali Mohammadi, 1997). The growth of communication around the world has strengthened the globalization and ever-growing globalization is making communication an important element of the life of countries and societies. It is a undeniable fact of our existence at the moment but the growth of communication and globalization does not go with criticism. ... The world as we see it today is more interdependent and more progressive than before as it has been established that one simply can not reach the shores of success and prosperity without the ships of other nations sailing beside them. This has led the developing countries to make arrangements to take the developed countries along with them. The spread of communication has changed the face of information exchange which is more rapid and immediate than ever before and the world is moving even more social and cultural integration leading the whole state of affairs of the world to be imbued in a single fabric of a single globalized world. The growth of industries and merging markets around the globe has greatly facilitated the growth of international organizations and has put a great impact on globalized production methods. The abrupt change and development in the globalization that is there today is due to the development of communications methods and channels that have not evolved in t he recent years but have taken years to come and develop. The globalization and international communication development is not something that happened in a one or two decades, but the process started with the first man stepping foot ahead to find new lands and opportunities (Thomas L. McPhail, 2010). Globalization of international communication has effected the international laws that govern states and the mutual relations of the states on the global level and leads the nations to devise national policies accordingly to foster concrete communication linkages for mutual development. The development of international communication over time has taken politics and national policy formulation to the international stage. Countries assist and guide each other for responsible national policy